Clean jar, lid, and band and rinse well. Keep warm.
Mix together sugar, salt, vinegar, and optional olive oil in a stainless steel saucepan.
Cook over medium heat until it begins to boil.
Fill jar with peppers and pour hot vinegar mixture over the peppers. Leave about 1 inch of headspace from the top of the jar
Remove air bubbles in the jar by tilting jar slightly to allow bubbles to escape as pepper press against opposite side of the jar.
Wipe jar rim to clean. Place lid on top of jar and tighten ring.
Allow jars to seal by setting on countertop to cool with about 1 inch in between each.
Test seal after about 12 hours by pressing finger to the center of the lid. If sealed, it will not pop back. If not sealed, refrigerate and use.
Store in dark, cool cabinet or pantry for up to a year.